In 10th hijri, the Holy Prophet P.B.U.H felt that his great mission has been accomplished and he will soon be leaving this temporary world. Consequently, he resolved to make a final pilgrimage to kabah. All the tribes were accordingly informed. In the month of zilhajj prophet left madina for makkah. After reaching makkah he left for mina on 8thzil-hajj. He stayed the night in Mina and on the next morning went to Arafat with his companions. There in Arafat. He gave a sermon standing on the top of a hill known as Jabal-e Arafat. The sermon which he gave is known as the last sermon.
Salient Features of the sermon:
The last sermon of the Holy Prophet P.B.U.H contained great lessons for the Muslims to conduct their lives in a way that pleases Allah. The salient features of the sermon are:-
Belief in the oneness of Allah:
He reminded his followers that one day they will appear before the Lord who shall take account of their deeds. He asked his followers to have faith in one Allah only, who is real and true creator of the universe.
Equality of citizens
Holy Prophet P.B.U.H declared that every Muslim is equal in the eyes of Allah. There is no superiority on the basis of race or colour. “Neither the Arab any preference over the non-Arab nor has non-Arab over the Arab. They only ground of superiority in the eyes of Allah is on the basis of piety. ”
Right of Wives:
Holy Prophet P.B.U.H extended certain rights in favour of women. Women in pre-Islamic times were not considered as an equal creature. Islam has raised the statues of women to a great extent. At the last sermon, Holy Prophet P.B.U.H reiterated the rights of women. He said, “verily you have rights over your wives and your wives have right over you. Treat your wives with respect and kindness as you have taken on security of Allah.”
Holy Prophet P.B.U.H made every Muslim brother of fellow Muslim. He said, “O people listen to me verily that all Muslim are brothers unto one another.
Preaching of Justice:
He preached the principles of justice and advised his followers to guard themselves from committing injustice.
Non exploitation of weak:
He advised from refraining to take that is belonging to another which he does not give out of his free will.
Protection of life and liberty:
He upheld the principle of protection of life and liberty of a person. He forbade from committing any bloodshed in the world. All the murders of the day of ignorance are to remain unavenged.
Right of slaves:
Feed your slaves as you feed yourselves, and give cloth to hour slaves as you cloth yourselves. Do not treat them with cruelty and harshness.
Islam was perfected and completed. Allah has showered his blessings on the Muslims and accepted the religion of Islam as true religion.
Importance of last sermon:
It has given shape to the Muslim society:
The last sermon outlined the basic principles for organization of Muslim society. Statuses of women and slaves were increased tremendously in the Muslim society.
Creation of just society.
The Holy Prophet PBUH established the principles of equality and brotherhood.
Peaceful outlook of Islam:
It provided rights not imaginable in the contemporary world.