35% rise in Green House Gases since 1975
- Earth cooled and warmed many times.
- Greenhouse effect has increased the average temperature of the earth.
- Over the past 100 year average 0.7% Celsius temp has increased. Scientist link this to various changes, but manmade activities are primarily responsible for global warming.
- More warming in 21st century 2.4-6.4 Celsius degree expected to rise by 2100
What is Greenhouse Effect:-
- No sending back heat waves.
- Positive effect is that it makes life possible otherwise earth would be too cool to support life.
Causes of Greenhouse:-
- Excessive use of fossils fuel
- Exploitation of earth resources
Types of greenhouse gases:-
- Water vapors
- Carbon dioxide
- Nitrous Oxide
- Synthetic Chemicals
- Freon Gas
- Aerosol sprays
Debate over Global Warming:-
- One group says human activities have nothing to do with global warming.
- In 1988 U.N. Environmental program and the World Meteorological organization (WMO) established Inter Governmental Panel on Climate change(IPCC) in 2007 blamed human activity.
- More humidity
- Frequent storms
- Ice sheets and glaciers
- Sea level 10-25 cm
- Plants and animals
- Human health
Suggestions to control Global Warming
- To reduce dependence over fossil fuels
- Storing CO2 somewhere else
- To preserve plants
- Underground deposition
1700 wood⟶1850 Oil ⟶1900 gas
more CO2 less CO2 leastCO2
- Nuclear Energy
- Solar and wind mild
- Bio diesel and ethanol
Efforts to control Greenhouse effect at international level:
- 1992 Rio De Janeiro at UN Conference on Environmental development known as Earth Summit.
- 150 countries pledged to confront the problem by signing UN framework convention on climate change (UNFCC).
- 1997 Japan 160 countries gathered to sign Kyoto Protocol on amendment to (UNFCCC). It aimed at creating the level of CO2 emission at pre 1990 level.
- Kyoto Protocol didn’t take into account the fast development of China and India.
- IN 2007 EU members gathered to decide the fate of GHG in EU. To reduce 20% from 1990 by 2020 and 30% if other nations joined 10% increase in bio diesel and ethanol.
Copenhagen Summit 2009:-
- The Copenhagen accord was drafted by US, China, India, Brazil, South Africa on 18th December.
- Not passed unanimously
- Document recognized the climate change as one of the major challenges and actions should be taken to limit it below 2oC.
- The document is not binding
- Wikileaks cable show that there was collusion between US and China by a meeting between Senator Kerry and Chinese PM.
Cancun Summit 2010:-
- Fund for poor countries to adopt the climate change
- New mechanism for fighting
Impact of Global Warming on Pakistan Economy:
- Degeneration of its ecology is costing Pakistan $365 equivalent to six percent of the GDP