Gender and Crime:
The study of the nature and extent of crime to a great extent has been the study of the nature and extent of male crime. The findings of generally male-based investigations have been utilized to make policies, programs, interventions and punishments that would be applied to all criminals. These male-based approaches have truly been used to react to girls and women crimes on the premise of the assumption that a one-measure fits-all model of crime, punishment and theory works for both genders. Scholars in the 20th and 21st centuries, however, have challenged the notion that female criminals are the same as male criminals, that the two carry out crimes for similar reasons and ought to be dealt with in the very same way by the criminal justice system.
Pathways and Women’s Crime:
For many people, the pathway to crime is muddled, and it is true for women as well. Women shar criminal patterns and motives with men, however there is currently an abundance of documented gender-specific factors related to women’s participation in crime and in the criminal justice system. Recent studies explain how the complexity and the context of the female life is often the cause of her involvement in criminal activities. To put it plainly, women have more prominent instances of injury, enslavement, relationship troubles, abuse, and economic exploitation than their male counterparts. A type of life course perspective, called the pathways perspective, currently exhibits the best method of understanding women’s involvement in offending and in the criminal justice system.
Correlates Of Crime And Victimization:
Girls and women endure higher rates of exploitation and abuse (sexual, physical, and enthusiastic) substantially more than their male counterparts. A recent US survey shows that almost half of the female inmates suffer physical or sexual violence while for male detainees the rat is less than 1 out of 5. Moreover, females’ abuse occurs at disproportionate rates both before and after they enter legal adulthood; in other words, females are more likely to suffer serious abuse as both girls and as women. This causes lifelong trauma which may not be cured through psychological treatment. Existing research connects traumatic experience faced by girls and women to adult victimization and female crimes.
The Nature and Extent of Women’s Crime:
A standout amongst other indicators of crime, particularly violent crime, is gender. Males commit violent crimes more than females. For instance, in 2006, males made up 82.8% of the people arrested for violent crime (murder, rape, robbery, assault etc) and 68.8% of the people arrested for property crimes (theft, vehicle theft, and burglary robbery). Women, nonetheless, made up 64.2% of the prostitution and commercialized vice arrests, and girls represented over half of all runaway arrests.
Women as Victims:
The association between a girl’s victimization and her criminal behaviour is complex. Many women are neither basically victims nor criminals; they are frequently both. # Sexual orientation centered research has featured female wrongdoers’ parts as casualtiesIn fact, many women were victims long before they ever became offenders. It is not uncommon for girls to have been victims of physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse, often at the hands of family members or loved ones. They attempt to survive abuse at home by engaging in “survival crimes,” namely, running away and engaging in sex work. These two behaviors, the first of which is considered a status offense for juveniles, offer viable means of escape from abusive homes. Life on the street for young girls can be dangerous and may in fact lead to other means of survival, especially those related to drugs and drug use and as discussed above, women are more likely to commit these two types of offences.