Darul Uloom Deoband

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Darul Uloom Deoband

Established:

In Deoband village of Saharan Pur in 1866

Background

(i) Miserable Muslim Conditions after the war of 1857.

(ii) Govt. patronage of Muslim education was absent.

(iii) Christian Missionaries efforts.

(iv) Muslim Scholar Haji Muhammmad Abid and Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanaotvi felt need for the establishment of such an institution for  imparting Muslim education… Islamic Renaissance.

Administration/Education Pattern:

  • In teaching of Hadith & other religious disciplines it followed pattern of Madrassah Rahimiyah established by father of Shah Wali Ullah.
  • Division of students in academic groups, attendance registers and written examination systems were features British educational system.
  • Departments of Darul Hadith & Darul Tafsir

Influence of Deoband:

  • It shed not only influence over Sub-continent but also over whole Muslim world.
  • It rated next to the Al- Azher university of Cairo.
  • Religio political goals of shah wali Ullah.

Religious Contributions:

  • Guidance of true Islam: Un-Islamic Customs and beliefs prevalent among Muslims.
  • Preaching of Islam against the mission of missionaries and answered their critical and venomous question in a rational and scientific way.
  • Training of scholars.
  • Role in khatam-e-Nabuwat movement.
  • Islamic literature: Translation of Quran, Education, Hadith, Tafseer Philosophy, Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic History.
  • Fatwas: carried great authenticity.

Political Trends:

  • Two groups
  • Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind: At the time of khilafat movement (Moulana Abdul Kalam) Pro-congress, Anti-British
  • Pro-AIML in favour of Azad partition of sub-continent, Molana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, Maulana Ashraf Thanvi- Jamiat Ulema Islam.
  • Anti-British faction wanted support of Turkey Iran, Afghanistan for expulsion of Britain from sub-continent – 1st world war.

Social Contributions:

  • Urdu as medium of education …. Students from different part came and learnt Urdu so revivalism of Urdu.
  • Reawakened social consciousness and stressed upon need of social mobility.

Aims and Objectives:

  • Providing comprehensive information to Muslims about their religion making necessary arrangements of teaching of Quran its explanation and illustration, Tafseer, Hadis and all other related subjects.
  • Invoking true spirit of Islam among students and training them according the Islamic code of ethics.
  • Propagation and preaching of Islam besides defending and protecting it.
  • Avoiding influence of govt. and preserving the freedom of thought and knowledge.
  • The establishment of Arabic Institutions for the propagation of Islam and their affiliation with the Darul Uloom Deoband.

Differences Between Darul-Uloom Deoband & Aligarh Movements:

Religious Differences:

  • The leaders of Deoband emphasized on religious superiority of Muslims and believed that the Muslims must strictly adhere to their religious customs and combat the impact of secularism. Whereas Aligarh movement adjusted itself to the plurality of religion.
  • Aligarh laid stress on western and English Education whereas Deoband stressed Islamic and religious learning.

Political Differences:

  • Aligarh movement was based on the policy of reconciliation with the British whereas the Tehrik-e-Deoband stressed on religious aspects of the Muslims and was opposed to the policy of reconciliation.
  • Molana Muhammad Qasim, a leading figure of Deoband remained engaged in the controversy with sir Syed Ahmad
  • Aligarh movement kept the Muslims away from the congress politics whereas DeoBandi Movement favoured it.
  • Aligarh (Sir Syed Ahmed taught Muslims, to maintain good relations with British whereas Deoband was more engaged in anti Britain in alliance of Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan.)

Common Points:

  • Both aimed at the socio-economic uplift of Muslims.
  • Amiable relations were developed in later years between both the institutions.

Conclusion:

Whereas the Aligarh, with it liberal attitude towards Britain and Islam succeeded in its mission and spearheaded Pakistan movement, but Deoband in its temperament dealt Islam on fanatic basis and failed to achieve desired results. Their leaders such as Molana Ubaid-Ullah Sindhi, Molana Muhammad Ul-Hassan supported Turks and Afghans in 1st world war and subsequently they went over the influence of Hindu Congress.

Critical Analysis:

There was a common view that there were three tendencies among Muslim; the 1st was deoband pro religious and anti Britian; the second one was that of Aligarh, pro-British and anti-Congress, and third was that of Nadwa- Pro –British and anti- Deoband and anti- Aligarh.

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