Makkah was conquered in 8th Hijri. In 6th Hijri, a truce was signed between Quraish and Muslims to stop fighting for ten years. The same truce allowed the tribes of the region to either joint the party of Muslims or of the party of Quraish. Consequently, the tribe of Banu Khuza formed alliance with Muslims, however the Banu Bakr enter into alliance with Quraish. When the truce of Hudaybiyah was in force for two years, Banu Bakr along with the party of Quraish attacked Banu Khuza and Slew several of them. Banu Khuza appealed to the Holy prophet for help and the prophet under the pact was compelled to take up cause of Banu Khuza.
Three offers given to Quraish:
The Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) gave three options to the Quraish; these were
- Pay blood money for the murdered.
- Withdrew support for Banu Bakr.
- To declare that the treaty of Hudaybiyah had become null and void.
The Quraish accepted the third proposal. On this, the Holy prophets P.B.U.H resolved to invade Makkah.
March Towards Makkah:
Holy Prophet P.B.U.H in command of ten thousand companions marched towards Makkah in 8th hijri. When Quraish came to know about the march of Muslims towards makah, they sued for peace. Their offer, however, was rejected. Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Quraish became extremely horrified. He came out of the Makkah, but was arrested soon and was brought before Holy prophet (PBUH). He was then pardoned by the Holy prophet. As a result, he accepted Islam.
Surrender of Quraish.
On the arrest of Abu-Sufyan, the Quraish surrendered itself. Thus, the whole be makkah was conquered without the shedding of single blood. No conquest was as peaceful as the conquest of Makkah in the annals of history.
Holy prophet P.B.U.H granted general amnesty to all the Quraishites. Even his bitterest enemies were pardoned by him. Hinda, the wife of Abu Sufyan, who chewed the liver of Holy Prophet’s Uncle, Hazrat Hamza R.A was also pardoned. Reconciliation rather than revenge forms the policy of the prophet P.B.U.H at the time of conquest. The prophet P.B.U.H and his followers were persecuted in Makkah, but when they gain power, they forgave everyone.
Destruction of idols of Makkah:
The Holy prophet P.B.U.H then destroyed all the idols of kabah. Kabah was placed with 360 idols that were destroyed by the Holy Prophet P.B.U.H signaling the triumph of truth over falsehood.
Effects of the conquest:
The conquest of Makkah is the watershed moment in the annals of Islamic history. Some of the effects of Makkah’s conquest are discussed below.
Triumph of truth over falsehood:
The conquest of Makkah was the triumph of truth over the falsehood. Islam despite being persecuted for so long gained superiority over the false beliefs. “Truth has come and falsehood had vanished”.
Domination of Arabia by Muslims:
The conquest of Makah meant that the Arabia had now come under the domination of Muslims. Makkah, Madina and Taif are the three main cities of Hijaz. Muslim’s domination in the two of the main cities meant that the Muslims became the dominant power of Arabia.
Establishment of new world power:
The conquest of Makkah established the new emerging power of the world. The conquest of Makkah was the forerunner of Muslim conquests elsewhere. This new power challenged the established empires of the world. Sassanid Empire of Persia was shattered to pieces by the Muslims. Byzantine, the other great empire of that time, suffered heavy losses at the hands of Muslims.
Day of re-birth of Humanity:
The conquest of Makkah is, in fact, the day of rebirth of humanity. Arabia before Islam was so steeped in vice that it degraded the humanity. The domination of religion of peace and tolerance gave re-birth to humanity on that day.
Islamic preaching of peace and conquest:
The hostility of Arabia towards Muslims was suppressed as a result of conquest of Arabia. The Islamic preaching of peace and conquest ensued.
The conquest of Makkah is the most significant event in the annuals of Islamic History. It establishes the authority of Muslims over the Arabian Peninsula. Allah has given the great victory to the Muslims, without shedding of a drop of human blood.