Conquest of Egypt 640-641 A.D/19-20 A.H:Byzantine Province.
Under pharaohs, it was a proud and independent country.
Fertile Nile Delta.
Became granary of Rome, then of Constantinople, and then of Madinah under Pious Caliphs.…
CONQUESTS OF SYRIA & PALESTINE 634-638 A.D:
Situation is Syria on Umar’s Accession:Rapid advancement towards Syria.
Emperor Heraclius had fled from Emessa to Antioch in Northern Syria, which became his second capital.…
Establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty: Muawiya I 661-680 A.D
Hazrat Hassan (R.A) abdicated in favour of Muawiya. In July 661, Muawiya became the undisputed caliph of the whole Empire.
Muawiya as Caliph:Second son of…
ISLAMIC IDEOLOGY AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS:
What is An Ideology:
Ideology is a philosophical term meaning Science of Ideas. Ideas mean a basic concept, and the basic concept on which any system is built constitutes its ideology.
European Renaissance through Muslim Learning in Spain:
A number of distinguished western historians and scientific investigators have fully acknowledged the part played by Islamic Spain and other centers of Islam in bringing…
Revenue Administration of the Umayyads:
Its Distinctive Features:Umayyads had more sources of revenue than that of orthodox caliphs.Zakat
Khums (1/5th share of war spoil to state),
Kharaj (land tax to…
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT:Lack of any fundamental laws of the state structure, constitution.
Evolution of Caliphate institution was accidental, not by theory or law of the state.
No rules and regulations for election of caliph or for…