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Optionals Group VII

Feudalism in Pakistan

Feudalism in Pakistan: Feudalism system in Pakistan is based on land tenure system which refers to the rights, obligation  and  arrangements  related to their ownership use and transfer of land. It means how land is held, ownership is determined and revenue  and fixed. The feudalism is positively correlated to the rigid land tenure system which […]

The Functions of Religion in Society

Functions of Religion: The functions of religion institution are mentioned as under Conception of the Supernaturalism: The major functions of a religious institution is to orientate man in his conception of the supernaturalism. It also reveals something about God. This provides psychological importance to an individual. Optimism and self-respect: Religion inculcates optimism, self-respect confidence among […]

Ibn-i-Khaldun Cyclic theory of Social Change

Ibn-i-Khaldun Cyclic theory of Social Change: Ibn-i-Khaldun propounded that the change in human society follows are clockwise pattern and a circle is completed and repeated after almost 120 years in a given society. He observes that there are fixed, definite, clear and standardised stages of the cycle, each stage having a peculiar economic, social, demographic, […]

Anomie Theory of Crime

Anomie Theory: Anomie is another word for strain — it alludes to the distinction between what a man tries to do and what he can really accomplish. At the point when Robert Merton developed the anomie theory in 1938, he concentrated on the interaction between the accompanying two ideas: ✓ Society imposes expectations or goals […]

Methods of Sociological Research

Sociological Research Methods: Sociologists utilize wide arrays of techniques in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena: from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agent’s social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets. Sociologist employs scientific methods of social research. Sociology shares […]

Emile Durkheim on Suicide

Emile Durkheim: Emile Durkheim, French sociologist, in 1897 published his study on suicide. It was the first methodological study of suicide. The work is a kind of case study of suicide, unique for its time and first major work on the subject. Types of Suicide: Emile Durkheim categorized three major types of suicides. Egoistic Suicide: […]

Society, Culture and Socialization

Society: “An autonomous population whose members are subject to a common political authority, occupy a common territory, have a common culture, and have a sense of shared identity” A society is the largest group with which most people can identify Members of a society are interdependent Societies are constantly changing and evolving No society exists […]

Techniques of Psychological Assessment

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT: A psychological assessment consists of more than just administering and interpreting tests. It is a complex intellectual activity that includes formulating hypotheses about a person, deciding what data are necessary to confirm or disconfirm these hypotheses, gathering the required data, interpreting them, and, finally, drawing conclusions. At each stage in the assessment process, […]

Clinical Judgment and Decision Making

CLINICAL JUDGMENT & DECISION MAKING Every day, psychologists make decisions that affect the lives and well-beings of other. Although, many of these decisions are routine, other are characterized by uncertainty. Clinical information is rarely perfectly reliable; the outcomes of treatment strategies are never perfectly predicable. Understanding how clinicians make decisions in the light of uncertainty […]

Psychological Explanation of Criminal behaviour

CRIME: Crime is the violation of law for which some governing authority can ultimately prescribe a conviction. While crime is an expression of social maladjustment defined by the law differently under different circumstances; it nevertheless has psychological and biological roots which will be discussed below. Biological Risk factor for involvement in Crime: Genetics:- There is […]

Client Centered Therapy

Client Centered Therapy Client Centered Therapy is an insight therapy that emphasis providing supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of therapy. Coral Rogers also called it person centered therapy. Rogers maintained that most personal distress is due to inconsistency or “incongruence” between a person’s self-concept and […]