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Optionals Group V

Gender and Crime

Gender and Crime: The study of the nature and extent of crime to a great extent has been the study of the nature and extent of male crime. The findings of generally male-based investigations have been utilized to make policies, programs, interventions and punishments that would be applied to all criminals. These male-based approaches have […]

The Social Construction of Gender

The Social Construction of Gender: Humans are born with biological sex, but we learn to be men and women. Right from birth we start to learn culture, including how to walk, talk, eat, dress, think, practice religion, react to aggression, and express our feelings like a man or a lady (Mauss 1979). We realize what […]

Difference Between Sex and Gender

Difference Between Sex and Gender: The English term ‘‘gender’’ alludes to linguistic category of masculine and feminine. Gender is a ‘‘social construct’’ indicating the ways in which men and women are taught values and behaviors appropriate to gender roles and social expectations. Practicing sophrosune, for example, is self-control for men but discretion and even silence […]

Factors which Influence Growth of Plants

Factors which Influence Growth of Plants: Synopsis: Introduction Types of factors. Genetic Factors. Environmental factors. Moisture supply. Radiant energy. Atmospheric composition. Toxic atmospheric substances. Soil structure and soil aeration. Soil PH. Biotic factors. Supply of minerals. Growth restricting substances. Comments: Introduction: Two types of factor influence plant growth; genetic and environmental. Genetic Factors: Plant growth […]

Genetics and Crop Improvement

Genetics and Crop Improvement: Genetics: Genetics is the science of heredity and variation which deals with resemblances and differences among individuals related by descent”. Heredity: Heredity is the transfer of traits from parents to offspring’s/progeny. Or Heredity means the similarities progeny shows to its parents and develops the progeny in the parental image. Variation: Deviation […]

Sustainable Development Issues: Population

Sustainable Development Issues: Sustainable Development: “Development that meet the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs”. WCED, 1987. Population Growth: “Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature”. Rio Declaration, Principle […]

Asexual Propagation of Plants

Asexual Propagation Of Plants: Asexual propagation is the multiplication of plant material without passing through the seed cycle. It is accomplished by “mitosis”: the cell division process by which the plants grow. Plants are produced using material from a single parent and as such there is no exchange of genetic material, therefore, daughter plants are […]

Methods of Weed Control

WEED CONTROL: Weed is a plant growing where it is not wanted, especially among crops or garden plants. Harmful Effects of Weeds: Compete with crops for light, water and nutrients. Crowd out the crop plants. Decreases the farm product and its market value. Poisonous to man and animals. Give shelter to harmful insects. Hosts pest […]

Principles of Crop Management

PRINCIPLE OF CROP MANAGEMENT: The basis of crop management is expressed through a simple equation expressed below: Input                            →        Crop                                         →      Output (Minimum)                                                         […]

Methods of Crop Irrigation

Irrigation of Crops: Pakistan has a cultivated area of 22.04 mha out of which 18 mha is irrigated area and the rest relies on rainfall which is quite variable and unexpected. The rainfall is not evenly distributed and Pakistan receives about 60% of its total rainfall in monsoon season alone. Crops require adequate and timely […]

Methods of Measuring Development in Humans

Methods of Measuring Development: Introduction:  Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual and personality development. Researchers have employed […]

Sexual Propagation of Plants

SEXUAL PROPAGATION OF PLANTS:- Sexual propagation of plants involve the union of male and female sex cells, the formation of seeds and therefore, creation of population of seedlings with new and different genotypes. In sexual reproduction, meiosis cell division takes place. In meiosis, the cells produced are gametes or spores. Gametes unite together to form […]