Human Reproductive Systems:
In both male and female, the reproductive system comprises of a pair of primary reproductive organs (gonads) and various accessory glands and ducts. Taken altogether, the human reproductive system produces gametes, stores and releases sex cells, and nourishes and protects the developing embryo.
The Male Reproductive System:
The male reproductive system delivers, stores, and discharges male gametes, called sperm. Men begin creating sperm amid puberty and keeps on doing so for the most part of their lives. The essential function of sperm is to store and convey hereditary data to the female egg. What’s more, its shape is famously suited for this capacity. A sperm cell can be separated into three areas: head, mitochondria, and flagellum. The large head region of a sperm contains DNA. The tight center segment, found just underneath the head, contains mitochondria. The mitochondria are the engine; they supply the energy required to move the sperm to the egg. The flagellum, or “tail,” whips about (utilizing energy provided by the mitochondria) and moves the sperm forward. Sperm starts life in one of two testicles, which are the male gonads. Both testes are contained within the scrotum, a pouch of skin that’s an extension of the lower abdominal wall. The scrotum holds the testes outside the abdominal wall rather than inside the body. The temperature inside the scrotum is somewhat lower than your body temperature, which promotes the development and survival of sperm.
The testes are made out of firmly coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules where special cells divide by meiosis and form into sperm. The newly formed sperm are then released into an elongated sac called the epididymus, for maturation and storage. It takes about 18 hours for sperm to mature and become fully functional.
At the point when a man turns out to be sexually stimulated, contractions in the muscles of the walls of the epididymus push the mature sperm into a pair of thick-walled tubes called the vas deferens. From that point, more contractions impel the sperm through ejaculatory channels and after that through the urethra, which are situated inside penis, a specialized reproductive organ for conveying sperm into a female. Amid excitement, its springy tissue loads with blood and turns out to be firm and erect. As the sperm goes to the urethra, it blends with glandular emissions to shape semen. Suspended in semen, the sperm is both protected and nourished.
An essential segment of semen is fructose, a sugar that the sperm utilizes for food. Semen additionally contains a buffering ingredient that protects the sperm from acidic conditions they may experience on their way to an egg.
The Female Reproductive System:
In females, the ovaries deliver and store eggs, the female gametes. An egg is alluded to as an ovum. Human females are conceived with in excess of 400,000 youthful eggs in their ovaries and don’t create any all the more amid their lifetime. Through the span of most ladies’ lifetimes, just around 400 eggs will really develop.
The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, two Fallopian tubes, a uterus, a cervix, a vagina, and outside genitalia. The Fallopian tubes are situated between the ovaries and the uterus, and convey develop eggs to the uterus. Fertilization can happen in either the Fallopian tubes or the uterus. The uterus is a strong saclike organ that will house and protect the embryo if fertilization occurs. The lower passageway of the uterus is known as the cervix. The cervix leads into the vagina, a tubelike canal that leads to the outside of the body. The vagina is the waterway that accepts the penis amid intercourse and through which an embryo will go during labor. Every month, the female reproductive system goes through a series of chemical and physical changes called the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle has four phases:
- The follicular stage
- The luteal stage
- Monthly cycle
The follicular stage starts when the hypothalamus fortifies the pituitary organ to create Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). FSH goes through the blood stream and invigorates a group of ovarian cells, called a follicle, to form around the ovum. FSH additionally advances the creation of another hormone, Estrogen.
Estrogen discharges into the circulatory system, where it fortifies the uterus to deliver a thick covering of tissue, bodily fluid, and veins. Estrogen additionally makes the pituitary organ deliver Luteinizing Hormone (LH), which makes the ovum develop.
During the next phase, ovulation, the follicle around the egg (which is currently developed, because of LH) breaks and discharges the ready egg. Finger like projections draw the egg out of the ovary and into the Fallopian tube.
The egg stays in the Fallopian tube for around four days, amid which time fertilization can happen. If the egg becomes fertilized, the resultant zygote moves through the Fallopian tube and into the uterus. In the luteal period of the menstrual cycle, the ruptured follicle that was left on the surface of the ovary forms into a totally new structure, the corpus luteum, which is a glandular structure. Affected by the pituitary organ, the corpus luteum conveys steroid hormones, including estrogen and progesterone. These hormones at that point invigorate the covering of the uterine divider to end up much thicker. The rising levels of these hormones make the body stop producing FSH. The last period of the cycle is feminine cycle. If the egg was fertilized, it will attach to the uterine lining. If it wasn’t fertilized, it won’t attach. In the case of an unfertilized egg, the corpus luteum stops producing progesterone, and the uterine lining sloughs off. The lining, along with the egg, is discharged through the cervix and vagina. After menstruation, the cycle begins all over again.