Salient Features of Government of India Act 1935

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THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935:

The Government of India Act 1935 was the largest bill passed by the British Parliament. This Act had the following salient features.

  1. Establishment of an all India Federation.
  2. Establishment of a semi-responsible government at center.
  3. Provincial autonomy.
  4. Special power of the Governors and Governor General.
  5. Establishment of the Federal Court, the Federal Railway Authority, the Reserve Bank of India and the FPSC.

CREATION OF THE ALL INDIA FEDERATION:

  • Powers were divided into the federal, provincial and Government subjects.
  • Dyarchy was abolished from the provinces but introduced at center.
  • Defence, Religious, Finance and Tribal affairs department were given to Federal Government.

FEDERAL ASSEMBLY:

  • Bicameral Legislature. Indian Legislative Council (Lower House) was comprised of 360 members whereas Council of State (Upper House) was comprised of 260 members.
  • President and vice president of assembly from the members of the house.
  • Legislature not independent but sham body,
  • Governor General would veto any law passed by Assembly.
  • No Control over Executive.
  • No power to amend Act 1935.

POWERS OF GOVERNOR  GENERAL:

  • Unlimited powers.
  • Financial control of federal government.
  • Maintenance of law and order in India.
  • Safeguarding the legitimate rights of the minorities.
  • Safeguarding the public servant and their right.
  • Checking the taxes against British goods.
  • Safeguarding the right of the Indian States.
  • Appointing and sacking the Councils of ministers.
  • Promulgation of Ordinance.
  • Suspending the constitution.
  • Interference in the provincial mattes.
  • Disallowing the debate on any bill in Assembly
  • Sending back the approved bills for further discussion.
  • Summoning and adjourning the Assembly session.
  • Dissolving the Assembly.

FEDERAL COURT:

  • Jurisdiction over British India and States.
  • Judge of High Court for 5 years/lawyer in High Court for 10 years—Eligibility as Judge of Federal Court .
  • Authorized to interpret the  constitution.
  • Advice to Governor General.

ABOLITION OF THE INDIAN COUNCIL:

  • Reduced the powers of the Secretary of State for India and abolished his council.
  • Permitted to have advisor.

CONCLUSION:

  • Not come up to the expectation of any community of the India except rulers of States.
  • Governors and Governor General overpowered.
  • Created more hindrance in the way of achieving a completely autonomous and responsible government for India.

     “Thoroughly rotten, fundamentally bad and totally unacceptable”. Jinnah

“A machine having strong brakes but no engine”. Jawaharlal Nehru.

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